Effect of olive leaf extract marination on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in pan-fried salmon

J Sci Food Agric. 2022 Jul;102(9):3908-3915. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11740. Epub 2022 Jan 11.


Background: In this study, the reducing effects of varying levels of olive leaf extract (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in pan-cooked salmon at 180 and 220 °C were examined.

Results: All salmon samples were analyzed for ten HAAs: IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC and Trp-P-2. The most abundant HAA was MeIQ (≤2.98 ng g-1 ) followed by Trp-P-2 (≤2.40 ng g-1 ), MeIQx (≤0.83 ng g-1 ), IQ (≤0.41 ng g-1 ), 7,8-DiMeIQx (≤0.29 ng g-1 ), 4,8-DiMeIQx (≤0.16 ng g-1 ) and IQx (≤0.06 ng g-1 ). However, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC were undetectable in all samples. In the control samples, HAAs were found at levels ranging from not detected to 2.40 ng g-1 . Total HAA content was between 0.81 and 4.03 ng g-1 . The olive leaf extracts reduced the total HAA levels at all certain concentration levels at 180 °C and the reducing effects were found to be 32.78-77.69%.

Conclusion: The current study displayed that olive leaf extracts could be efficient when added in up to 1% concentration prior to cooking for reducing HAA formation without changing organoleptic characteristics of salmon. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: Maillard reaction; antioxidant; cooking temperature; fish.

MeSH terms

  • Amines / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cooking
  • Heterocyclic Compounds* / chemistry
  • Meat / analysis
  • Olea*
  • Plant Extracts
  • Salmon


  • Amines
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Plant Extracts
  • olive leaf extract