Novel in Vivo and in Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic-Based Human Starting Dose Selection for Glofitamab

J Pharm Sci. 2022 Apr;111(4):1208-1218. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.12.019. Epub 2021 Dec 22.


We present a novel approach for first-in-human (FIH) dose selection of the CD20xCD3 bispecific antibody, glofitamab, based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) assessment in cynomolgus monkeys to select a high, safe starting dose, with cytokine release (CR) as the PD endpoint. Glofitamab pharmacokinetics were studied in mice and cynomolgus monkeys; PKPD of IL-6, TNF-α and interferon-γ release following glofitamab, with/without obinutuzumab pretreatment (Gpt) was studied in cynomolgus monkeys. Potency differences for CR between cynomolgus monkeys and humans were determined by glofitamab incubation in whole blood of both species. The PKPD model for CR was translated to humans to project a starting dose that did not induce CR exceeding a clinically-predefined threshold. In cynomolgus monkeys, glofitamab showed a species-specific atypical high clearance, with and without B-cell debulking by Gpt. CR was related to glofitamab serum levels and B-cell counts. B-cell reduction by Gpt led to a marked decrease in CR. FIH starting dose (5 µg) was selected based on IL-6 release considering the markedly higher glofitamab in vitro potency in human vs monkey blood. This is a novel PKPD-based approach for selection of FIH starting dose for a CD20xCD3 bispecific antibody in B-cell lymphoma, evidenced in the glofitamab study, NP30179 (NCT03075696).

Keywords: Antibody drug(s); Antibody(s); IgG antibody(s); Interspecies (dose) scaling; Monoclonal antibody(s); Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics.

Publication types

  • Clinical Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bispecific*
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell* / drug therapy
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell* / pathology
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Mice


  • Antibodies, Bispecific
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • glofitamab

Associated data