Lumbar instability as an etiology of low back pain and its treatment by prolotherapy: A review

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2022;35(4):701-712. doi: 10.3233/BMR-210097.


Background: Low back pain is a significant spinal disorder that affects much of the population at some point during their lives.

Objective: While proper diagnosis is key, diagnosing the underlying cause of low back pain may often be unclear.

Method: In this review article, we discuss lumbar instability as an etiology of low back pain and its treatment by prolotherapy.

Results: Spinal ligaments may be an underlying culprit in the development of lumbar instability with resultant low back pain and associated disorders.

Conclusion: In these cases, adequate treatment consisting of non-biologic prolotherapy or cellular prolotherapy, including platelet rich plasma (PRP), can be beneficial in restoring spinal stability and resolving chronic low back pain.

Keywords: Lumbar instability; degenerative disc disease; facet joint; low back pain; prolotherapy; sacroiliac joint; spinal osteoarthritis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Joint Instability* / complications
  • Joint Instability* / therapy
  • Low Back Pain* / etiology
  • Low Back Pain* / therapy
  • Lumbar Vertebrae
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma*
  • Prolotherapy*
  • Spinal Diseases*