A critical analysis of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) complexities, emerging variants, and therapeutic interventions and vaccination strategies

Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 Feb;146:112550. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112550. Epub 2021 Dec 15.


Coronavirus is a family of viruses that can cause diseases such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The universal outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. The β-Coronaviruses, which caused SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), have spread in more than 213 countries, infected over 81 million people, and caused more than 1.79 million deaths. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild fever, flu to severe pneumonia in severely ill patients. Difficult breathing, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney disease, liver damage, and multi-organ failure ultimately lead to death. Researchers are working on different pre-clinical and clinical trials to prevent this deadly pandemic by developing new vaccines. Along with vaccines, therapeutic intervention is an integral part of healthcare response to address the ongoing threat posed by COVID-19. Despite the global efforts to understand and fight against COVID-19, many challenges need to be addressed. This article summarizes the current pandemic, different strains of SARS-CoV-2, etiology, complexities, surviving medications of COVID-19, and so far, vaccination for the treatment of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus complexities; Coronavirus variants; Global pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; Therapeutic interventions; Vaccination; β-Coronavirus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / genetics
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • COVID-19 / genetics*
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / genetics
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
  • Genetic Variation / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional / trends
  • SARS-CoV-2 / genetics*
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccination / trends*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antiviral Agents
  • COVID-19 Vaccines