Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment of Isavuconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus in Adult Patients with Invasive Fungal Diseases: Should Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Isavuconazole Be Considered as Mandatory as for the Other Mold-Active Azoles?

Pharmaceutics. 2021 Dec 6;13(12):2099. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13122099.


Isavuconazole is a newer broad-spectrum triazole approved for the treatment of invasive fungal disease. The objective of this study was to conduct a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of isavuconazole in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized patients. A nonlinear mixed-effect approach with Monte Carlo simulations was conducted to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) of an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24 h)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of 33.4 (defined as efficacy threshold against A. fumigatus and A. flavus) associated with a maintenance dose (MD) of 100, 200 and 300 mg daily after loading. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) against the EUCAST MIC distributions of A. fumigatus and A. flavus was calculated as well. The proportion of trough concentrations (Ctrough) exceeding a defined threshold of toxicity (>5.13 mg/L) was estimated. A total of 50 patients, with a median age of 61.5 years, provided 199 plasma isavuconazole concentrations. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was the prevalent type of infection and accounted for 80% (40/50) of cases. No clinical covariates were retained by the model. With the standard MD of 200 mg daily, CFRs were always ≥90% during the first two months of treatment. The risk of Ctrough < 1.0 mg/L was around 1%, and that of Ctrough > 5.13 mg/L was 27.7 and 39.2% at 28 and 60 days, respectively, due to isavuconazole accumulation over time. Our findings suggest that TDM for isavuconazole should not be considered as mandatory as for the other mold-active azoles voriconazole and posaconazole.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation; hospitalized patients; isavuconazole; therapeutic drug monitoring.