Biomarkers in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Review

Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2022 Mar;21(1):36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.clcc.2021.11.002. Epub 2021 Nov 20.


Locally advanced rectal cancers (LARC) are the subject of a rapidly evolving treatment paradigm. The critical timepoints where management decisions are required during the care of the LARC patient are: prior to the institution of any treatment, post neoadjuvant therapy and post-surgery. This article reviews the clinical, imaging, blood-based, tissue-based, and molecular biomarkers that can assist clinicians at these timepoints in the patient's management, in prognosticating for their LARC patients or in predicting responses to therapy in the multi-modality neoadjuvant treatment era.

Keywords: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation; Prognosis; Rectal carcinoma; Survival; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Chemoradiotherapy / methods
  • Humans
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary* / drug therapy
  • Rectal Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Rectal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Rectum


  • Biomarkers