The profile of musculoskeletal pain and its associations with sleep quality and depression during the COVID-19 in Turkey

Korean J Pain. 2022 Jan 1;35(1):78-85. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2022.35.1.78.


Background: The current pandemic has affected people's health multidimensionally. This study aims to investigate musculoskeletal pain, sleep quality, depression levels, and their relationships in individuals belonging to different age groups during COVID-19 in Turkey.

Methods: A web-based self-administered survey that consisted of demographic questions, The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and scores of musculoskeletal pain was sent to participants. Pearson correlation analysis was used for determining the statistical relationship between variables.

Results: The study includes 1,778 participants. The highest percentage for mild, moderate, and severe pain was in the head (49.8%), back (15.5%), and head (11.5%), respectively. The PSQI-total had shown a weak correlation with pain levels in all body parts. The highest correlation for sleep quality and pain levels was between the PSQI-5 and lower back pain. There was a weak correlation between PSQI- 2 and the BDI score, and a moderate correlation between the PSQI-1, PSQI-5, PSQI- 7, PSQI-total, and BDI score. Pain in all body parts showed a weak correlation with depression level.

Conclusions: This study showed that musculoskeletal pain was varied in body parts with different intensities according to age groups in Turkey during the pandemic. The most common pain was in the head, back, and lower back. Headache was found correlated with the parameters of sleep quality. Pain of the head, neck, back, lower back, and shoulder were correlated with sleep latency. Sleep quality was associated with depression and musculoskeletal pain, while musculoskeletal pain was correlated with depression.

Keywords: COVID-19; Depression; Headache; Low Back Pain; Musculoskeletal Pain; Pain; Pandemics; Sleep; Surveys and Questionnaires..