Objectives: Dialysis is considered a contraindication to continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation. We evaluated clinical outcomes and survival in carefully selected, low-risk patients with renal failure who required dialysis before CF-LVAD implantation.
Methods: We extracted medical record data of patients who underwent CF-LVAD placement at our centre between 1 January 2006 and 31 August 2017, with 2 clinical scenarios: those who required long-term (>14 days) dialysis and those who required short-term (≤14 days) dialysis immediately before implantation. Demographic, clinical and intraoperative characteristics and survival outcomes were assessed.
Results: Of 621 patients who underwent CF-LVAD implantation during the study period, 31 underwent dialysis beforehand. Of these, 17 required long-term dialysis (13 haemodialysis, 4 peritoneal dialysis), and 14 underwent short-term haemodialysis. Compared with the long-term dialysis patients, the short-term dialysis patients were more likely to be Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profile 1-2 (92.9% vs 70.6%; P < 0.001), to have needed preoperative mechanical circulatory support (78.6% vs 70.6%; P < 0.01) and to have higher in-hospital mortality (85.7% vs 29.4%; P = 0.01). Patients stable on long-term dialysis had acceptable overall survival and markedly better 6-month and 1-year survival than those with short-term dialysis before implantation (64.7% vs 14.3% and 58.8% vs 7.1%, respectively; P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Carefully selected patients who are stable on long-term dialysis have acceptable survival rates after CF-LVAD implantation. Patients with acute renal failure had much poorer outcomes than those with chronic end-stage renal disease.
Keywords: End-stage renal disease; Haemodialysis; Heart failure; Left ventricular assist device.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.