Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Calcium Hydroxide and Two Antibiotic Pastes on Human Stem Cells of The Apical Papilla

Eur Endod J. 2021 Dec;6(3):303-308. doi: 10.14744/eej.2021.97658.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of triple antibiotic paste, double antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide medicaments on human stem cells of the apical papilla.

Methods: In this experimental study, stem cells were isolated from the apical papilla and cultured. They are treated with different concentrations 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml of medicaments for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the medicaments were determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and Comet test, respectively.

Results: Results showed all tested concentrations of the calcium hydroxide had no significant effect on stem cells at any time point. Triple antibiotic paste showed cytotoxicity in 10 and 100 mg/mL concentrations at all-time points and in 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml concentrations at 72 hours. In addition, its genotoxicity was significantly higher than that of other groups (P<0.05). Double antibiotic paste showed cytotoxic effects only in 100 mg/ml concentration at 24 hours and 10 and 100 mg/ml concentrations at 48 and 72 hours. And also, its genotoxicity in these concentrations was significantly higher than that of control and calcium hydroxide groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: In contrast to calcium hydroxide, triple antibiotic paste and double antibiotic paste, especially in their higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human stem cells of the apical papilla.