Bioavailability and Cardiometabolic Effects of Xanthohumol: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2022 Mar;66(6):e2100831. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202100831. Epub 2022 Jan 14.


Xanthohumol is the main prenylflavonoid in hops and has been associated with a wide range of health benefits, due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and cancer-preventive properties. Increasing evidence suggests that xanthohumol positively affects biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review summarizes the effects of xanthohumol supplementation on body weight, lipid and glucose metabolism, systemic inflammation, and redox status. In addition, it provides insights into the pharmacokinetics of xanthohumol intake. Animal studies show that xanthohumol exerts beneficial effects on body weight, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and other biochemical parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and CVDs. Although in vitro studies are increasingly elucidating the responsible mechanisms, the overall in vivo results are currently inconsistent and quantitatively insufficient. Pharmacokinetic and safety studies confirm that intake of xanthohumol is safe and well tolerated in both animals and humans. However, little is known about the metabolism of xanthohumol in the human body, and even less about its effects on body weight and CVD risk factors. There is an urgent need for studies investigating whether the effects of xanthohumol on body weight and cardiometabolic parameters observe in animal studies are reproducible in humans, and what dosage, formulation, and intervention period are required.

Keywords: body weight; glucose metabolism; inflammation; lipid metabolism; xanthohumol.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Flavonoids / adverse effects
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Lipids
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / chemically induced
  • Propiophenones* / adverse effects


  • Flavonoids
  • Lipids
  • Propiophenones
  • Glucose
  • xanthohumol