Trends in Body Mass Index and Association With Outcomes in Pediatric Patients on Continuous Flow Ventricular Assist Device Support

ASAIO J. 2022 Sep 1;68(9):1182-1190. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001633. Epub 2021 Dec 28.


Data are limited regarding body mass index (BMI) in pediatric patients supported by ventricular assist devices (VAD) and associated clinical outcomes and complications. We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study including patients aged ≤21 years on durable continuous-flow VAD support for ≥30 days from 2009 to 2020. Patients were classified based on BMI percentile at implant using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria: underweight (<5th percentile), healthy weight (5th-<85th percentile, reference group), overweight (85th-<95th percentile), and obese (≥95th percentile). Primary outcomes were hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) after implant. Secondary outcomes included infectious complications and pump thrombosis. Seventy-two patients (58 HeartWare, 13 HeartMateII, 1 HeartMate3) were included. At implant, the study cohort comprised 13% underweight, 53% healthy weight, 18% overweight, and 17% obese. BMI increased across all categories during support, with 29% gaining BMI categories. No patients with obesity reduced their BMI category. At explant, the study cohort comprised 1% underweight, 54% healthy weight, 22% overweight, and 22% obese. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality, postoperative LOS, or pump thrombosis. Patients who were overweight had more frequent non-VAD infections. Patients with obesity required longer duration on VAD support and were less likely to be transplanted. We concluded that pediatric patients on VAD support who are overweight or have obesity do not improve their BMI and instead have significant increase. Larger studies are needed to assess the impact of abnormal BMI on VAD complications in pediatric patients.

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Heart-Assist Devices* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Obesity / complications
  • Overweight* / complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Thinness / complications