In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of the various microRNAs (miRNAs) shown to be involved in glaucoma and intraocular pressure regulation. miRNAs are short, single-stranded, and noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a number of physiological conditions and human diseases, including glaucoma. Numerous miRNAs display differential expression in glaucoma-affected tissues, such as aqueous humor, tears, trabecular meshwork, and retina analyzed from patients and animal models, suggesting their potential involvement in glaucoma pathogenesis. Several studies summarized here have also investigated the challenge of delivering intact miRNAs to target tissues in order to develop miRNA-based glaucoma therapies. We extend these reports by conducting an additional layer of analysis that integrates the interaction between glaucoma-related miRNAs and glaucoma-associated genes. We conclude with a comprehensive discussion of the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, the cellular pathways that link these miRNAs together, and the most promising miRNAs for future glaucoma research.
Keywords: Aqueous humor; Glaucoma; Retina; Tears; Trabecular meshwork; miRNA.
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