Minimally Invasive Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2022 Apr;33(4):359-367.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2021.12.029. Epub 2021 Dec 27.


Purpose: To review and to compare indirectly the outcomes of minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Materials and methods: A literature search via Medline and Cochrane Central databases was completed for randomized control studies published between January 2000 to April 2020 for the following therapies: Rezum, Urolift, Aquablation, and prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Data on the following variables were included: International prostate symptom score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate, quality of life, and postvoid residual (PVR). Standard mean differences between treatments were compared through a meta-analysis using transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to assess differences in treatment effect.

Results: There was no significant difference in outcomes between therapies for IPSS at the 3, 6, and 12-month follow ups. Although outcomes for Rezum were only available out to 3 months, there were no consistently significant differences in outcomes when comparing Aquablation versus PAE versus Rezum. TURP PVR was significantly better than Urolift at 3, 6, and 12 months. No significant differences in minor or major adverse events were noted.

Conclusion: Although significant differences in outcomes were limited, Aquablation and PAE were the most durable at 12 months. PAE has been well studied on multiple randomized control trials with minimal adverse events while Aquablation has limited high quality data and has been associated with bleeding-related complications.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms* / etiology
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms* / therapy
  • Male
  • Network Meta-Analysis
  • Prostate / blood supply
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / complications
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / therapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate* / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome