Detection of Nuclear Biomarkers for Chromosomal Instability

Methods Mol Biol. 2022:2445:117-125. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2071-7_8.


Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer, which is characterized by the gain or loss of chromosomes as well as the rearrangement of the genetic material during cell division. Detection of mitotic errors such as misaligned chromosomes or chromosomal bridges (also known as lagging chromosomes) is challenging as it requires the analysis and manual discrimination of chromosomal aberrations in mitotic cells by molecular techniques. In interphase cells, more frequent in the cell population than mitotic cells, two distinct nuclear phenotypes are associated with CIN: the micronucleus and the toroidal nucleus. Several methods are available for the detection of micronuclei, but none for toroidal nuclei. Here, we provide a method to quantify the presence of both nuclear biomarkers for the evaluation of CIN status in non-mitotic cells particularly suited for genotoxicity screens.

Keywords: Biological image processing; Chromosomal instability; Genotoxicity biomarkers; Micronucleus; Nuclear phenotype; Toroidal nucleus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Chromosomal Instability*
  • Chromosomes
  • Humans
  • Mitosis* / genetics


  • Biomarkers