NAVIGATE 24-Month Results: Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy for Pulmonary Lesions at 37 Centers in Europe and the United States

J Thorac Oncol. 2022 Apr;17(4):519-531. doi: 10.1016/j.jtho.2021.12.008. Epub 2021 Dec 29.


Introduction: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a minimally invasive, image-guided approach to access lung lesions for biopsy or localization for treatment. However, no studies have reported prospective 24-month follow-up from a large, multinational, generalizable cohort. This study evaluated ENB safety, diagnostic yield, and usage patterns in an unrestricted, real-world observational design.

Methods: The NAVIGATE single-arm, pragmatic cohort study (NCT02410837) enrolled subjects at 37 academic and community sites in seven countries with prospective 24-month follow-up. Subjects underwent ENB using the superDimension navigation system versions 6.3 to 7.1. The prespecified primary end point was procedure-related pneumothorax requiring intervention or hospitalization.

Results: A total of 1388 subjects were enrolled for lung lesion biopsy (1329; 95.7%), fiducial marker placement (272; 19.6%), dye marking (23; 1.7%), or lymph node biopsy (36; 2.6%). Concurrent endobronchial ultrasound-guided staging occurred in 456 subjects. General anesthesia (78.2% overall, 56.6% Europe, 81.4% United States), radial endobronchial ultrasound (50.6%, 4.0%, 57.4%), fluoroscopy (85.0%, 41.7%, 91.0%), and rapid on-site evaluation use (61.7%, 17.3%, 68.5%) differed between regions. Pneumothorax and bronchopulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 4.7% and 2.7% of subjects, respectively (3.2% [primary end point] and 1.7% requiring intervention or hospitalization). Respiratory failure occurred in 0.6%. The diagnostic yield was 67.8% (range: 61.9%-70.7%; 55.2% Europe, 69.8% United States). Sensitivity for malignancy was 62.6%. Lung cancer clinical stage was I to II in 64.7% (55.3% Europe, 65.8% United States).

Conclusions: Despite a heterogeneous cohort and regional differences in procedural techniques, ENB demonstrates low complications and a 67.8% diagnostic yield while allowing biopsy, staging, fiducial placement, and dye marking in a single procedure.

Keywords: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy; Image-guided biopsy; Interventional pulmonology; Lung cancer; Lung cancer diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bronchoscopy / methods
  • Cohort Studies
  • Electromagnetic Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms* / complications
  • Lung Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Lung Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Pneumothorax* / epidemiology
  • Pneumothorax* / etiology
  • Pneumothorax* / pathology
  • Prospective Studies
  • United States