Genetic Dissection of the Mixing Properties of Wheat Flour ( Triticum aestivum L.) Using Unconditional and Conditional QTL Mapping

J Genomics. 2022 Jan 1;10:8-15. doi: 10.7150/jgen.67253. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour mixing properties are essential quality parameters in the dough development process. Limited research on superior alleles for mixing properties has restricted their molecular improvement, and other factors related to the complex traits have been ignored. A molecular map of 9576 polymorphic markers in the RIL population (F8:9) (Shannong01-35/Gaocheng9411) was constructed to evaluate mixing property effects in three environments. The parents were selected with markedly distinct high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). This study not only evaluated mixing properties using conventional unconditional QTL mapping but also evaluated the relationships between protein-related traits using conditional QTL mapping. The analyses identified most additive QTLs for major mixing properties on chromosomes 1A, 1B, and 1D. Two major loci (1A.1-15 and 1D-1) associated with mixing properties have confirmed the important contributions of Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 to wheat quality at the QTL level, which were mainly affected by the gluten index. Another important locus, 1B.1-24 (associated with midline peak value and midline peak width, with high phenotypic variations explained), might represent a new variation distinct from Glu-B1. The favored alleles came from Gaocheng9411. Several mixing properties shared the same QTLs (1B.1-6 and 1A.1-15), indicating tight linkage or pleiotropism. Genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions were also investigated in the present study. The QTL results in our study may improve our understanding of the genetic interrelationships between mixing properties and protein-related traits.

Keywords: HMW-GS; conditional QTL mapping; flour mixing properties; unconditional QTL mapping.