Metal-Organic Frameworks for Bioimaging: Strategies and Challenges

Nanotheranostics. 2022 Jan 1;6(2):143-160. doi: 10.7150/ntno.63458. eCollection 2022.


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), composited with metal ions and organic linkers, have become promising candidates in the biomedical field own to their unique properties, such as high surface area, pore-volume, tunable pore size, and versatile functionalities. In this review, we introduce and summarize the synthesis and characterization methods of MOFs, and their bioimaging applications, including optical bioimaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and multi-mode. Furthermore, their bioimaging strategies, remaining challenges and future directions are discussed and proposed. This review provides valuable references for the designing of molecular bioimaging probes based on MOFs.

Keywords: Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Metal-organic frameworks; Optical bioimaging.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Metal-Organic Frameworks*
  • Metals


  • Metal-Organic Frameworks
  • Metals