Neurogenic and cognitive enhancing effects of human dental pulp stem cells and its secretome in animal model of hippocampal neurodegeneration

Brain Res Bull. 2022 Mar:180:46-58. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.12.012. Epub 2022 Jan 1.


Progressive hippocampal neuronal losses, neuroinflammation, declined neurogenesis and impaired hippocampal functions are pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Halting neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus is a major challenge in treating such disease conditions which, if unsuccessful would lead to learning/memory dysfunction and co-morbidities like anxiety/depression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy provides hope for treating neurodegenerative diseases by either replacing lost neurons by transplantation of MSCs which might differentiate into appropriate neuronal phenotypes or by stimulating the resident neural stem cells for proliferation/differentiation. In this current study, we demonstrate that the intrahippocampal transplantation of ectoderm originated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) or intrahippocampal injection of DPSCs condition medium (DPSCs-CM) in a mouse model of hippocampal neurodegeneration could efficiently prevent neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory functions much superior to commonly used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or its secretome. Probing the possible mechanisms of neuroprotection revealed that DPSCs/DPSCs-CM treatment upregulated an array of hosts' endogenous neural survival factors expression, reduced pro-apoptotic caspase activity and upregulated the anti-apoptotic factors BCL-2 and phosphorylated PI3K prominently than BM-MSCs/BM-MSCs-CM, suggesting that among MSCs, neural crest originated DPSCs might be a better adult stem cell candidate for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Conditioned medium; Hippocampus; Mesenchymal stem cells; Neurogenesis; Neuroprotection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / etiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / therapy*
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Dental Pulp / physiology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hippocampus / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / complications
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / therapy*
  • Neurogenesis / physiology*
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / etiology
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / therapy*
  • Neuroprotection / physiology*
  • Secretome / physiology


  • Culture Media, Conditioned