Insulin Growth Factor Phenotypes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction, an INSPIRE Registry and CATHGEN Study

J Card Fail. 2022 Jun;28(6):935-946. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.12.012. Epub 2021 Dec 31.


Background: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis emerged as an important pathway in heart failure with preserved ejection (HFpEF). We aimed to identify IGF phenotypes associated with HFpEF in the context of high-dimensional proteomic profiling.

Methods: From the INtermountain Healthcare Biological Samples Collection Project and Investigational REgistry for the On-going Study of Disease Origin, Progression and Treatment (Intermountain INSPIRE Registry), we identified 96 patients with HFpEF and matched controls. We performed targeted proteomics, including IGF-1,2, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 1-7 and 111 other proteins (EMD Millipore and ELISA). We used partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to identify a set of proteins associated with prevalent HFpEF, pulmonary hypertension and 5-year all-cause mortality. K-mean clustering was used to identify IGF phenotypes.

Results: Patients with HFpEF had a high prevalence of systemic hypertension (95%) and coronary artery disease (74%). Using PLS-DA, we identified a set of biomarkers, including IGF1,2 and IGFBP 1,2,7, that provided a strong discrimination of HFpEF, pulmonary hypertension and mortality with an area under the curve of 0.91, 0.77 and 0.83, respectively. Using K mean clustering, we identified 3 IGF phenotypes that were independently associated with all-cause 5-year mortality after adjustment for age, NT-proBNP and kidney disease (P = 0.004). Multivariable analysis validated the prognostic value of IGFBP-1 and 2 in the CATHeterization GENetics (CATHGEN) biorepository.

Conclusion: IGF phenotypes were associated with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in HFpEF.

Keywords: Heart failure; biomarker; clusters; heart failure with preserved ejection; insulin growth factor; metabolism; pulmonary hypertension; survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Catheterization
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary*
  • Insulin
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • Proteomics
  • Registries
  • Stroke Volume


  • Biomarkers
  • Insulin