Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Inborn Errors of Immunity Other than Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Japan: Retrospective Analysis for 1985-2016

J Clin Immunol. 2022 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s10875-021-01199-w. Online ahead of print.


Purpose: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapy for most patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). We conducted a nationwide study on HCT for patients with IEI other than severe combined immunodeficiency (non-SCID) in Japan.

Methods: Data from the Japanese national database (Transplant Registry Unified Management Program, TRUMP) for 566 patients with non-SCID IEI, who underwent their first HCT between 1985 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: The 10-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 74% and 64%, respectively. The 10-year OS for HCT from unrelated bone marrow (URBM), accounting for 39% of HCTs, was comparable to that for HCT from matched sibling donor (MSD), 79% and 81%, respectively. HCT from unrelated cord blood (URCB), accounting for 28% of HCTs, was also common, with a 10-year OS of 69% but less robust engraftment. The intensity of conditioning was not associated with OS or neutrophil recovery; however, myeloablative conditioning was more frequently associated with infection-related death. Patients who received myeloablative irradiation showed poor OS. Multivariate analyses revealed that HCT in 1985-1995 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; P = 0.03), URCB (HR, 2.0; P = 0.01), and related donor other than MSD (ORD) (HR, 2.9; P < 0.001) were associated with poor OS, and URCB (HR, 3.6; P < 0.001) and ORD (HR, 2.7; P = 0.02) showed a higher incidence of retransplantation.

Conclusions: We present the 1985-2016 status of HCT for non-SCID IEI in Japan with sufficient statistical power, highlighting the potential of URBM as an alternative donor and the feasibility of reduced intensity conditioning.

Keywords: Inborn errors of immunity; Japan; hematopoietic cell transplantation; retrospective study; umbilical cord blood transplantation.