Background: Chronic steroid therapy is associated with higher vascular complication rates in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The effect of corticosteroids on aortic annular complications has not been directly assessed in this population.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1095 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR was performed. Patients treated with chronic steroids at the time of the procedure (n = 99) were compared with those who received no steroids (n = 992). The primary outcome included a composite of aortic annular complications, defined as a combination of aortic annular rupture, aortic dissection/perforation, and left ventricular perforation.
Results: The primary outcome was significantly higher in the steroid group (4.0% vs 0.5%; P<.01). This finding was primarily driven by higher rates of acute annular rupture in the steroid group (2.0% vs 0.2%; P=.04). Steroid use was associated with higher rates of intraoperative cardiac arrest (5.1% vs 1.5%; P=.03), device capture/retrieval (4.0% vs 0.8%; P=.01), and emergent conversion to open heart surgery (4.0% vs 0.6%; P<.01). There were no differences with respect to in-hospital mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, need for permanent pacemaker, bleeding complications, minor vascular complications, hospital length of stay, hospital 30-day readmission, or 30-day echocardiographic findings. Additionally, within the steroid group, there were no significant differences between balloon-expandable vs self-expanding TAVR prostheses with respect to composite aortic annular complications.
Conclusion: Chronic steroid therapy increases the risk of aortic annular complications in patients undergoing TAVR, with detrimental consequences including intraoperative cardiac arrest and conversion to open heart surgery. Steroid use should be considered in patient selection and determination of procedural technique for TAVR.
Keywords: coronary perforation; corticosteroids; steroid therapy; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.