Parametric mapping, that is, a pixel-wise map of magnetic relaxation parameters, expands the diagnostic potential of cardiac magnetic resonance by enabling quantification of myocardial tissue-specific magnetic relaxation on an absolute scale. Parametric mapping includes T1 mapping (native and postcontrast), T2 and T2* mapping, and extracellular volume measurements. The myocardial composition is altered in various disease states affecting its inherent magnetic properties and thus the myocardial relaxation times that can be directly quantified using parametric mapping. Parametric mapping helps in the diagnosis of nonfocal disease states and allows for longitudinal disease monitoring, evaluating therapeutic response (as in Thalassemia patients with iron overload undergoing chelation), and risk-stratification of certain diseases. In this review article, we describe various mapping techniques and their clinical utility in congenital heart disease. We will also review the available literature on normative values in children, the strengths, and weaknesses of these techniques. This review provides a starting point for pediatric cardiologists to understand and implement parametric mapping in their practice.
Keywords: amyloidosis; cardiomyopathy; fibrosis; magnetic resonance imaging; myocardium.