Whole Genome Sequencing Assessing Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Mutations and Type of Recurrence in India

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 14;75(5):768-776. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab1067.


Background: Evidence describing the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the recurrence and mutation rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is limited.

Methods: This study was nested in 3 cohort studies of tuberculosis (TB) patients with and without DM in India. Paired Mtb isolates recovered at baseline and treatment failure/recurrence underwent whole genome sequencing. We compared acquisition of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), TB drug resistance mutations, and type of recurrence (endogenous reactivation [<8 SNPs] or exogenous reinfection [≥8 SNPs]) by DM status.

Results: Of 1633 enrolled in the 3 parent cohorts, 236 (14.5%) had microbiologically confirmed TB treatment failure/recurrence; 76 Mtb isolate pairs were available for sequencing (22 in TB-DM and 54 in TB-only). The SNP acquisition rate was overall was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], .25-.64) per 1 person-year (PY); 0.77 (95% CI, .40-1.35) per 1 PY, and 0.44 (95% CI, .19-.86) per 1 PY at treatment failure and recurrence, respectively. Significant difference in SNP rates by DM status was seen at recurrence (0.21 [95% CI, .04-.61]) per 1 PY for TB-only vs 1.28 (95% CI, .41-2.98) per 1 PY for TB-DM; P = .02). No significant difference in SNP rates by DM status was observed at treatment failure. Acquired TB drug resistance was seen in 4 of 18 (22%) in TB-DM vs 4 of 45 (9%) in TB-only (P = .21). Thirteen (17%) participants had exogenous reinfection; the reinfection rate at recurrence was 25% (3/12) for TB-DM vs 17% (4/24) in TB-only (P = .66).

Conclusions: Considerable intrahost Mtb mutation rates were present at recurrence among patients with DM in India. One-fourth of patients with DM had exogenous reinfection at recurrence.

Keywords: India; diabetes mellitus; drug resistance and recurrence; tuberculosis; whole genome sequencing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Mutation
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis* / genetics
  • Recurrence
  • Reinfection
  • Tuberculosis* / drug therapy
  • Tuberculosis* / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis* / microbiology
  • Whole Genome Sequencing