Acute effects of linagliptin on intact and total glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes patients with and without moderate renal impairment

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2022 May;24(5):806-815. doi: 10.1111/dom.14636. Epub 2022 Jan 21.


Aims: To investigate the effect of renal impairment on incretin metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) before and after treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin.

Materials and methods: Long-standing T2DM patients with normal (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] >90 mL/min/1.73m2 ) and impaired (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 ) renal function on stable treatment with insulin were included. Before and after 8 days of treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily, patients underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and total and intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon concentrations were measured. The primary outcome was the difference between the study groups in change of intact GLP-1 concentrations.

Results: Of 115 patients screened, 29 were analysed (15 [51.7%] with and 14 [48.3%] without renal impairment). Renal function differed significantly between the groups (101 ± 11 vs. 47 ± 13 mL/min/1.73m2 ; P < 0.0001), while glycaemic control was similar (glycated haemoglobin 68 ± 5 vs. 66 ± 5 mmol/mol; P = 0.45). Baseline GLP-1 and GIP levels were comparable. Glucose concentrations during the OGTT were significantly lowered by linagliptin treatment in patients with renal impairment (P = 0.017), but not in those with normal renal function (P = 0.17). Treatment with linagliptin resulted in a significant increase in intact GLP-1 and GIP levels in patients with normal (P = 0.048 and P = 0.0001, respectively) and impaired (P = 0.040 and P = 0.0011, respectively) renal function during the OGTT. However, the primary outcome (difference between the groups in change of intact GLP-1 concentrations) was not significant (P = 0.22). Overall, linagliptin was well tolerated.

Conclusions: Treatment with linagliptin increases intact incretin levels in patients with T2DM. Impaired renal function does not compromise the effects of linagliptin on active or total incretin levels as well as on glucagon secretion. Thus, treatment with linagliptin is suitable for patients with T2DM, independently of renal function.

Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitor; GIP; GLP-1; linagliptin; renal impairment; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / metabolism
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide* / metabolism
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Linagliptin / therapeutic use


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Linagliptin
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1