Influenza virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), enumerated using an ELISA-plaque assay, were found in the lung and spleen up to 18 months after primary murine influenza infection. The number of ASCs generated in stimulated lung and spleen cell cultures increased 50- to 200-fold after influenza infection. Whereas the level of response did not change in spleen cell cultures up to 18 months after infection, there was a gradual reduction in ASCs in lung cell cultures obtained more than 6 months after infection, predominantly due to a reduction in B memory cells. Homotypic re-infection increased ASCs in the lung only, whereas B-cell memory increased in both the lung and spleen. Although ASCs increased in both the lung and spleen after heterotypic challenge, ASCs and B-cell memory specific for the original subtype were not increased.