An Update on Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2022 Jan 5;23(12):84. doi: 10.1007/s11926-021-01051-5.


Purpose of review: To review the recent available evidence on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and summarize potential future research perspectives.

Recent findings: Accumulating evidence has further expanded our understanding of the disease, including new data about the incidence and prevalence of APS, novel pathways supporting the role of thrombo-inflammation in APS including platelet, monocyte and endothelial cell activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, complement activation, neutrophil extracellular trap release, and type I interferon gene expression that could yield to new potential treatment targets, better identification of criteria and non-criteria clinical phenotypes, antiphospholipid antibody profiles and their associations with clinical outcomes, prognostic tools, and treatment strategies based on recent evidence-based recommendations for patients with thrombotic and obstetric APS, with or without systemic lupus erythematosus. Ongoing research efforts and international collaborations enhance our knowledge of this rare and often devastating syndrome and help improve patient care and health outcomes.

Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome; Clinical/laboratory profiles; Diagnosis; Pathogenesis; Prognosis; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Extracellular Traps*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic*
  • Pregnancy
  • Thrombosis*


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid