Visual Outcomes Associated With Patterns of Macular Edema Resolution in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Treated With Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Lucentis, Eylea, Avastin in Vein Occlusion (LEAVO) Trial

JAMA Ophthalmol. 2022 Jan 6;e215619. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.5619. Online ahead of print.


Importance: It is unclear how visual outcomes vary between patterns of macular edema (ME) resolution in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

Objective: To assess best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) outcomes at 100 weeks based on macular fluid resolution patterns by 52 and 100 weeks among patients receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for CRVO-related ME.

Design, setting, and participants: Post hoc analysis of the prospective, 3-arm, double-masked, randomized noninferiority trial Lucentis, Eylea, Avastin in Vein Occlusion (LEAVO), which evaluated intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg/0.05 mL), bevacizumab (1.25-mg/0.05 mL), or ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) over 100 weeks in adult patients (18 years and older) with CRVO-related ME with BCVA Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter score of 19 to 78 in the study eye (approximate Snellen equivalent, 20/400 to 20/32, respectively) from December 2014 to December 2016 at 44 UK National Health Service ophthalmology departments. A total of 140 of 154 eyes were randomized to aflibercept, 144 of 154 randomized to bevacizumab, and 141 of 155 randomized to ranibizumab. Data were analyzed from January 2019 to March 2019.

Exposures: Persistent ME included eyes with central subfield thickness (CST) 320 μm or greater, and persistently dry macula (no ME) included eyes with CST less than 320 μm at 52 and 100 weeks. Recurrent ME included eyes that did not meet the criteria for persistently dry or wet. If CST was missing, the closest intervening visit was carried forward.

Main outcomes and measures: Adjusted mean BCVA at 100 weeks.

Results: The mean (SD) age of the 425 included participants was 69.2 (12.7) years, and 243 participants (57.2%) were men. A total of 425 eyes from 425 participants were included. By 100 weeks, 117 eyes (28.5%) were persistently dry, 44 (10.7%) were persistently wet (with ME), and 250 (60.8%) had recurrent ME. Persistent ME at 100 weeks was associated with worse VA compared with dry macula (adjusted difference, -10.98 ETDRS letters; 95% CI, -16.19 to -5.76; P < .001) and recurrent ME (adjusted difference, -5.39 letters; 95% CI, -10.15 to -0.64; P = .03). By 52 weeks, individuals with persistent ME also had poorer 100-week BCVA compared with individuals with dry macula (adjusted difference, -7.39; 95% CI, -11.72 to -3.05; P < .001) and recurrent ME (adjusted difference, -3.92; 95% CI, -8.05 to 0.20; P = .06). By 100 weeks, more eyes treated with bevacizumab had persistently wet macula than those treated with aflibercept (26 of 140 [18.6%] vs 7 of 134 [5.2%]; difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 5.9 to 20.8; P < .001) or ranibizumab (11 of 137 [8%]; difference, 10.5%; 95% CI, 2.7 to 18.4; P = .01).

Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that attempts should be made to maintain persistently fluid-free macula for optimal visual acuity outcomes.