Extraction of shikimic acid from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using sonication: An approach towards waste valorization

J Environ Manage. 2022 Mar 1;305:114419. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114419. Epub 2022 Jan 3.


Shikimic acid (SA) is a valuable compound found in water hyacinth and is a precursor for synthesis of antiviral drug oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®) which is used to treat H5N1 avian influenza. In the present work, the acid was extracted from different morphological parts (stem, leaves, and roots) of water hyacinth (a notorious aquatic weed) using sonication. The parametric study has been conducted by varying sonication time (10-50 min), solvent composition (methanol + water), solvent volume (20-50 mL), amplitude of sonication (30-60%), and pulse ratio (20-50%) for improving the recovery of shikimic acid (SA), antioxidant activity (AA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water hyacinth extract. Also, the acid was extracted conventionally as a benchmark study. The highest yield of 2.4% at 40 min and 3.1% at 30 min was observed in case of conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), respectively for stem. Leaves showed a higher TPC value of 7.4 mg GAE/g biomass and a higher AA was observed 83.21% at 20 min for stem in case of conventional method. The highest TPC value of 11.11 mg GAE/g biomass has been observed for leaves while stem has shown the highest AA of 87.72% at 10 min of sonication time for UAE. It was possible to recover the valuable chemicals with better processing conditions in the case of UAE.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Phenolic contents; Shikimic acid; Ultrasound-assisted extraction; Water hyacinth.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Eichhornia*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype*
  • Phenols
  • Shikimic Acid
  • Sonication


  • Phenols
  • Shikimic Acid