Objective/design: Cross-sectional study to examine the determinants of sleep health among postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City (NYC).
Setting/participants: A subset of participants recruited as part of the COVID-19 Mother Baby Outcomes (COMBO) cohort at Columbia University (N = 62 non-Hispanic White, N = 17 African American, N = 107 Hispanic).
Measurements: Data on maternal sleep, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors were collected via questionnaire at 4 months postpartum. Self-reported subjective sleep quality, latency, duration, efficiency, disturbances, and daytime dysfunction were examined as categorical variables (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]). Associations between sleep variables and COVID-19 status, time of the pandemic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors were estimated via independent multivariable regressions.
Results: Mothers who delivered between May-December 2020, who delivered after the NYC COVID-19 peak, experienced worse sleep latency, disturbances and global sleep health compared to those who delivered March-April 2020, the peak of the pandemic. Maternal depression, stress and COVID-19-related post-traumatic stress were associated with all sleep domains except for sleep efficiency. Maternal perception of infant's sleep as a problem was associated with worse global PSQI score, subjective sleep quality, duration, and efficiency. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic mothers reported worse global PSQI scores, sleep latency, duration and efficiency, but less daytime dysfunction.
Conclusions: These findings provide crucial information about sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors contributing to sleep health in the postpartum period.
Keywords: COVID-19; disparities; ethnicity; mother; postpartum; race.
Copyright © 2021 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.