Effects of smoking on the bone alkaline phosphatase in peri-implant crevicular fluid and implant stability quotient around implants before loading

Odontology. 2022 Jul;110(3):596-604. doi: 10.1007/s10266-021-00685-2. Epub 2022 Jan 6.


We aimed to examine the implant stability quotient (ISQ), alveolar bone level measurements (ABL), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) around implants in smokers and non-smokers before loading in 3 months. 44 dental implants were placed into smoker and non-smoker patients equally. ISQ was measured at baseline and 3 months after surgery. The levels of PICF BALP and alveolar bone were measured. ISQ values significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers in the 3rd month (p < 0.05). ABL measurements were lower at 3 months compared to baseline in both groups (p < 0.05). Although ISQ and ABL values were higher in non-smokers than smokers at 3 months, the difference between the groups did not show any statistical significance. The PICF BALP levels in the 3rd month changed in both groups. But, these differences were insignificant. Although some of the measurements presented differences between the groups during the assessment periods, they were not indicative of the hazardous effects of smoking on bone healing around implants after surgery till functional loading in 3 months. However, smoking is an important factor to be considered for osseo-integration outcomes. Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of smoking on osseo-integration.

Keywords: Dental implants; Nicotine; Osseointegration; Smoking.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Dental Implants*
  • Humans
  • Osseointegration
  • Smoking / adverse effects


  • Dental Implants
  • Alkaline Phosphatase