Magnesium exposure increases hip fracture risks in patients with chronic kidney disease: a population-based nested case-control study

Osteoporos Int. 2022 May;33(5):1079-1087. doi: 10.1007/s00198-022-06301-5. Epub 2022 Jan 7.


This population-based study demonstrates a strong link between Mg-containing antacid exposure and hip fracture risk in nondialysis CKD and dialysis patients. As an Mg-containing antacid, MgO is also commonly used as a stool softener, which can be effortlessly replaced by other laxatives in CKD patients to maintain bone health.

Purpose: Bone fracture is a severe complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, leading to disability and reduced survival. In CKD patients, blood magnesium (Mg) concentrations are usually above the normal range due to reduced kidney excretion of Mg. The present study examines the association between Mg-containing antacid exposure and the risk of hip fracture of CKD patients.

Methods: In this nationwide nested case-control study, we enrolled 44,062 CKD patients with hip fracture and 44,062 CKD matched controls, among which the mean age was 77.1 years old, and 87.9% was nondialysis CKD.

Results: As compared to non-users, Mg-containing antacid users were significantly more likely to experience hip fracture (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.41; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that such risk exists in both nondialysis CKD patients and long-term dialysis patients. In contrast, aluminum or calcium-containing-antacid use did not reveal such association. Next, we examined the influence of Mg-containing antacid dosage on hip fracture risk, the adjusted ORs in the first quartile (Q1), Q2, Q3, and Q4 were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; p < 0.001), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.30 to 1.41; p < 0.001), 1.49 (95% CI, 1.43 to 1.56; p < 0.001), and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.47 to 1.61; p < 0.001), respectively, showing that such risk exists regardless of the antacid dosage. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the best cutoff value of the exposed Mg dose to discriminate the hip fracture is 532 mEq during the follow-up period.

Conclusion: This population-based study demonstrates a strong link between Mg-containing antacid exposure and the hip fracture risk in both nondialysis CKD and dialysis patients.

Keywords: Antacid; Bone mineralization; Chronic kidney disease; Fracture; Magnesium.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antacids / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures* / complications
  • Hip Fractures* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Magnesium
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy
  • Risk Factors


  • Antacids
  • Magnesium