Trends in Glycemic Control Among Youth and Young Adults With Diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

Diabetes Care. 2022 Feb 1;45(2):285-294. doi: 10.2337/dc21-0507.


Objective: To describe temporal trends and correlates of glycemic control in youth and young adults (YYA) with youth-onset diabetes.

Research design and methods: The study included 6,369 participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Participant visit data were categorized into time periods of 2002-2007, 2008-2013, and 2014-2019, diabetes durations of 1-4, 5-9, and ≥10 years, and age groups of 1-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, and ≥25 years. Participants contributed one randomly selected data point to each duration and age group per time period. Multivariable regression models were used to test differences in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time by diabetes type. Models were adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, health insurance status, insulin regimen, and diabetes duration, overall and stratified for each diabetes duration and age group.

Results: Adjusted mean HbA1c for the 2014-2019 cohort of YYA with type 1 diabetes was 8.8 ± 0.04%. YYA with type 1 diabetes in the 10-14-, 15-19-, and 20-24-year-old age groups from the 2014-2019 cohort had worse glycemic control than the 2002-2007 cohort. Race/ethnicity, household income, and treatment regimen predicted differences in glycemic control in participants with type 1 diabetes from the 2014-2019 cohort. Adjusted mean HbA1c was 8.6 ± 0.12% for 2014-2019 YYA with type 2 diabetes. Participants aged ≥25 years with type 2 diabetes had worse glycemic control relative to the 2008-2013 cohort. Only treatment regimen was associated with differences in glycemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: Despite advances in diabetes technologies, medications, and dissemination of more aggressive glycemic targets, many current YYA are less likely to achieve desired glycemic control relative to earlier cohorts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Glycemic Control
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A

Associated data

  • figshare/10.2337/figshare.17052590