Panoramic tongue imaging and deep convolutional machine learning model for diabetes diagnosis in humans

Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 7;12(1):186. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03879-4.


Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder with high rate of prevalence worldwide; the disease has the characteristics of improper secretion of insulin in pancreas that results in high glucose level in blood. The disease is also associated with other complications such as cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. The development of computer aided decision support system is inevitable field of research for disease diagnosis that will assist clinicians for the early prognosis of diabetes and to facilitate necessary treatment at the earliest. In this research study, a Traditional Chinese Medicine based diabetes diagnosis is presented based on analyzing the extracted features of panoramic tongue images such as color, texture, shape, tooth markings and fur. The feature extraction is done by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-ResNet 50 architecture, and the classification is performed by the proposed Deep Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) algorithm based on auto encoder learning mechanism. The proposed model is simulated in MATLAB environment and evaluated with performance metrics-accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, error rate, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC). On comparing with existing models, the proposed CNN based Deep RBFNN machine learning classifier model outperformed with better classification performance and proving its effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Decision Support Techniques
  • Deep Learning*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology*
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted*
  • Humans
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted*
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional*
  • Photography*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Tongue / pathology*