Stoma creation is associated with a low incidence of midline incisional hernia after colorectal surgery: the "fighting over the fascia" theory concerning the incision and stoma hole

Surg Today. 2022 Jun;52(6):953-963. doi: 10.1007/s00595-021-02434-y. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Abstract

Purpose: Parastomal hernia (PH) develops more frequently than incisional hernia (IH) after colorectal surgery with stoma. This study evaluated our hypothesis that inward traction of the fascia when closing a midline incision widens the stoma hole and increases the incidence of PH.

Methods: A total of 795 patients who underwent colorectal resection between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The risk classification was constructed from IH risk factors extracted from the non-stoma group. Then, the classification was extrapolated to the stoma group for predicting midline IH and PH.

Results: The incidence of IH was 5.3% in the stoma group and 12.5% in the non-stoma group (p = 0.005). PH developed in 19.6% of 97 patients with permanent stoma. The risk classification was able to predict PH without a significant difference but was well balanced in patients with permanent stoma; however, it failed to predict IH in the stoma group.

Conclusion: The risk classification constructed from the non-stoma group was useful for predicting not midline IH but PH, suggesting that the stoma site was the most vulnerable for herniation. The "fighting over the fascia" theory between the midline incision and stoma hole may explain the causal relationship between the midline IH and PH.

Keywords: Colorectal surgery; Incisional hernia; Parastomal hernia; Risk factor.

MeSH terms

  • Colectomy / adverse effects
  • Colorectal Surgery*
  • Fascia
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Incisional Hernia* / epidemiology
  • Incisional Hernia* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Surgical Wound*