Risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after gynecological day surgery

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2022 Mar;270:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.12.027. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Danish women operated within a day surgery setting and to evaluate whether the current use of thromboprophylaxis without using graduated elastic compression stockings (GCS) is an appropriate treatment to prevent VTE.

Study design: A retrospective cohort study including women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy or vaginal prolapse operation for benign disease from January 2014 to December 2017 at the Gynecology Day Surgery Unit, Regional Hospital of Randers, Denmark. The primary outcome was VTE diagnosed within three months postoperatively. Only one dose of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (PTP) was given to women stratified at high risk of VTE. None of the women used GCS.

Results: A total of 671 women were included. Vaginal prolapse operations were performed on 626 women, and laparoscopic hysterectomy on 45 women. PTP was used for only 220 (32.8%) of these women. A total of 346 (51.5%) women were stratified as at high risk of VTE according to the national recommendations. Only 218 (63%) of these women received PTP, while 128 women (37%) did not receive PTP. The incidence of VTE within three months postoperatively was 0%. Only 13 (1.9%) of the women were readmitted within 14 days postoperatively due to hemorrhaging or hematoma; six out of these 13 women (46%) received PTP postoperatively. Re-operation was performed in seven (1%) women due to hemorrhaging, and three out of the seven (42.9%) had PTP postoperatively.

Conclusion: The risk of VTE in Danish women operated within a day surgery setting is probably very low since we found no cases of VTE in our setup. The beneficial effect of routine use of GCS and one dose of PTP postoperatively given to all women who had undergone MIS in a day surgery setting are questioned. One dose of PTP postoperatively without GCS can be considered to only women stratified as high-risk of VTE until there is more evidence whether these women actually need thromboprophylaxis postoperatively at all.

Precis: The incidence of VTE in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy or vaginal prolapse operation in a day surgery setting without using graduated elastic compression stockings is very low.

Keywords: Graduated elastic compression stockings; Laparoscopic hysterectomy; Minimally invasive surgery; Thromboprophylaxis; Venous thromboembolism.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Gynecology*
  • Humans
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / etiology
  • Pulmonary Embolism* / prevention & control
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Venous Thromboembolism* / epidemiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism* / etiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism* / prevention & control
  • Venous Thrombosis* / epidemiology
  • Venous Thrombosis* / etiology
  • Venous Thrombosis* / prevention & control

Substances

  • Anticoagulants