Cytomegalovirus-Positive Posner-Schlossman Syndrome: Impact on Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning

Am J Ophthalmol. 2022 May:237:290-298. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.12.015. Epub 2022 Jan 5.


Purpose: To report objective morphologic changes in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS).

Design: Retrospective, consecutive case series.

Methods: We reviewed the charts of patients with unilateral PSS tested positive for CMV by Goldmann-Witmer coefficients between 2007 and 2018 at our tertiary eye clinic. We report data on corneal endothelial cell (CEC) count, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), choroidal thickness (CT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as clinical findings and management. The unaffected eye served as control.

Results: Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients were included and followed for 32.8 ± 28.3 months. The peak intraocular pressure was 45 ± 11 mm Hg. The CEC (2241.7 ± 381.1 cells/mm2 vs 2529.4 ± 351.9 cells/mm2, P = .0004) and the global RNFL thickness (80.81 ± 21.01 µm vs 97.38 ± 9.75 µm, P = .0001) were significantly reduced, whereas CT was nonsignificantly higher (295.69 ± 45.46 µm vs 274.00 ± 67.85 µm, P = .156) in the affected eyes compared to the fellow eye. Forty (76.9%) patients were treated with oral valganciclovir (VGC), 2 (3.8%) with topical ganciclovir alone, and 10 (19.2%) received no antiviral therapy. Eight eyes (15.4%) underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. After cessation of oral VGC, 23 patients (57.5%) had recurrences.

Conclusions: In our cohort, CMV-positive PSS was often associated with RNFL thinning and CEC loss. Highly elevated intraocular pressures usually present the most relevant challenge. In conjunction with aqueous humor sampling, monitoring by OCT scans and endothelial microscopy may help to guide therapy decisions.

MeSH terms

  • Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections* / diagnosis
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections* / drug therapy
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle*
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Nerve Fibers
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence