Association between race/ethnicity and income on the likelihood of coronary revascularization among postmenopausal women with acute myocardial infarction: Women's health initiative study

Am Heart J. 2022 Apr;246:82-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2021.12.013. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Abstract

Background: Historically, race, income, and gender were associated with likelihood of receipt of coronary revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Given public health initiatives such as Healthy People 2010, it is unclear whether race and income remain associated with the likelihood of coronary revascularization among women with AMI.

Methods: Using the Women's Health Initiative Study, hazards ratio (HR) of revascularization for AMI was compared for Black and Hispanic women vs White women and among women with annual income <$20,000/year vs ≥$20,000/year over median 9.5 years follow-up(1993-2019). Proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and AMI type. Results were stratified by revascularization type: percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG). Trends by race and income were compared pre- and post-2010 using time-varying analysis.

Results: Among 5,284 individuals with AMI (9.5% Black, 2.8% Hispanic, and 87.7% White; 23.2% <$20,000/year), Black race was associated with lower likelihood of receiving revascularization for AMI compared to White race in fully adjusted analyses [HR:0.79(95% Confidence Interval:[CI]0.66,0.95)]. When further stratified by type of revascularization, Black race was associated with lower likelihood of percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI compared to White race [HR:0.72(95% CI:0.59,0.90)] but not for CABG [HR:0.97(95%CI:0.72,1.32)]. Income was associated with lower likelihood of revascularization [HR:0.90(95%CI:0.82,0.99)] for AMI. No differences were observed for other racial/ethnic groups. Time periods (pre/post-2010) were not associated with change in revascularization rates.

Conclusion: Black race and income remain associated with lower likelihood of revascularization among patients presenting with AMI. There is a substantial need to disrupt the mechanisms contributing to race, sex, and income disparities in AMI management.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Ethnicity*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction* / surgery
  • Myocardial Revascularization
  • Postmenopause
  • Whites
  • Women's Health