Hemocirculatory and metabolic changes in tumor regions and the remote brain structure were analyzed using oxygen-15 and fluorine-18 positron emission tomography (PET) in eight patients with gliomas after radiation and chemotherapy of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and N-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil (FT-207). In the tumor regions after the radiochemotherapy, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) varied widely and there was a tendency for oxygen consumption (rCMRO2) to fall. The change in glucose consumption (rCMRG1) was especially noteworthy with regard to clinical correlations. Six patients with decreased rCMRG1 values had 16% to 29% regressions in tumor size measured by X-ray computerized tomography (CT), and showed some period of clinical relief. In contrast, one patient with an increased rCMRG1 value had some progression of tumor growth, and there were no clinical amelioration. The hemocirculation and metabolism of the contralateral gray matter seem to fluctuate by various factors as intracranial pressure and the effectiveness of the therapy. In gliomas therapy, tumor rCMRG1 values can be a good indicator of therapeutic effectiveness.