Hematology Emergencies in Critically Ill Adults: Benign Hematology

Chest. 2022 May;161(5):1285-1296. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.12.650. Epub 2022 Jan 7.


Hematologic conditions (malignant or benign) may progress to acute critical illness requiring prompt recognition and intensive management. This review outlines diagnostic considerations and approaches to management for intensivists of common benign hematologic emergencies, including the following: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, acute chest syndrome associated with sickle cell disease, and hyperhemolysis syndrome.

Keywords: antiphospholipid syndrome; disseminated intravascular coagulation; hematologic emergencies; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Critical Illness / therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Emergencies
  • Hematology*
  • Humans
  • Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic* / complications
  • Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic* / diagnosis