Combining Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE) and CT-Guided High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT): A Retrospective Analysis of Advanced Primary and Secondary Liver Tumor Treatment

Cancers (Basel). 2021 Dec 24;14(1):72. doi: 10.3390/cancers14010072.


Purpose: Treatment of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors remains challenging. This study analyzes the efficacy and safety of transarterial radioembolization (TARE) combined with CT-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors.

Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients (30 female) with various liver malignancies were treated. Primary endpoints were median overall survival (OS) and time to untreatable progression (TTUP). Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed in consideration of diagnosis and procedure sequence. Median OS and TTUP prediction were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: A total of 115 CT-HDRBT and 96 TARE procedures were performed with no significant complications recorded. Median OS and TTUP were 29.8 (95% CI 18.1-41.4) and 23.8 (95% CI 9.6-37.9) months. Median OS for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-, cholangiocarcinoma carcinoma (CCA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was 29.8, 29.6 and 34.4 months. Patients starting with TARE had a median OS of 26.0 (95% CI 14.5-37.5) compared to 33.7 (95% CI 21.6-45.8) months for patients starting with CT-HDRBT. Hazard ratio of 1.094 per month was shown for patients starting with CT-HDRBT.

Conclusion: Combining TARE and CT-HDRBT is effective and safe for the treatment of advanced stage primary and secondary liver tumors. Our data indicate that early TARE during the disease progression may have a positive effect on survival.

Keywords: Ablation; Interventional Radiology; Locoregional therapy; Minimal Invasive; Oncology; SIRT.