Owing to their intrinsic properties, such as deformability, high electrical conductivity, and superior electrochemical performance, room-temperature liquid metals and liquid metal alloys have attracted the attention of researchers for a wide variety of applications, including portable and large-scale energy storage applications. In this study, novel gallium-indium-tin eutectic (EGaInSn) room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles synthesized using a facile and scalable probe-ultrasonication method were used as anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The morphology, geometry, and self-healing properties of the synthesized room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS). The synthesized room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles delivered a specific capacity of 474 mAh g-1 and retained 77% of the stable reversible capacity after 500 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a constant current density of 0.1 A g-1. The high theoretical specific capacity, combined with its self-healing and fluidic features, make EGaInSn room-temperature liquid metal nanoparticles a potential anode material for large-scale energy storage applications.
Keywords: gallium-indium-tin eutectic; liquid metal nanoparticles; lithium-ion battery; room-temperature liquid metals; self-healing.