Vitamin D Deficiency and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Body Mass Index

Nutrients. 2021 Dec 27;14(1):102. doi: 10.3390/nu14010102.


A relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been described. Considering that GDM prevalence depends on body mass index (BMI), our main objective was to determine if VDD is associated with GDM, independent of BMI. A cross-sectional study with 886 pregnant women was conducted in Elda (Spain) from September 2019 to June 2020. To assess the association, Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR). The observed GDM prevalence was 10.5%, while the VDD prevalence was 55.5%. In the crude model, both VDD and obesity were associated with GDM, but in the adjusted model, only VDD was statistically significant (PR = 1.635, p = 0.038). A secondary event analysis did not detect differences in VDD, but BMI yielded a higher frequency of births by cesarean section and newborns with a >90 percentile weight in the obesity group. In conclusion, VDD is associated with GDM, independent of BMI. Future longitudinal studies could provide information on causality.

Keywords: 25(OH)D concentration; body mass index; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnant women; vitamin D deficiency.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*