A Cross-Sectional Study on Canine and Feline Anal Sac Disease

Animals (Basel). 2021 Dec 31;12(1):95. doi: 10.3390/ani12010095.


Limited data are available on canine and feline non-neoplastic anal sac disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain observational data on the incidence, predisposing factors, diagnosis, treatment, and recurrence rate of canine and feline anal sac disease. To this end, a questionnaire was distributed among veterinarians. The incidence of non-neoplastic anal sac disease was estimated at 15.7% in dogs and 0.4% in cats. Predisposing factors were diarrhea, skin problems, several dog breeds, and particularly small breed dogs, male cats, British shorthairs, and obesity in dogs. Diagnosis was made based on the presence of clinical signs and characteristics of the anal sac content. Manual expression and treating any potential underlying disease were the most important treatments for all three types of non-neoplastic anal sac disease. Anal sacculectomy was performed in refractory cases. The most recurrent anal sac disease condition was impaction. Diagnosis of anal sac disease should be based on clinical signs and rectal examination, as the evaluation of the anal sac content is not reliable. Surgical outcomes of anal sacculectomy can be improved when surgery is performed after medical management. Future studies should investigate these findings in prospective trials.

Keywords: allergy; cat; diarrhea; dog; gland; impaction; inflammation; non-neoplastic; sacculectomy; skin.