Retinol and α-Tocopherol Contents, Fat Color, and Lipid Oxidation as Traceability Tools of the Feeding System in Suckling Payoya Kids

Animals (Basel). 2022 Jan 2;12(1):104. doi: 10.3390/ani12010104.


The effects of Payoya kid feeding systems on the fat-soluble vitamin (retinol/α-tocopherol) contents, fat content, fat color, and the oxidation index were evaluated to determine their potential for use as feeding system traceability tools. Four groups of Payoya kids (55 animals in total) fed milk exclusively were studied: a group fed a milk replacer (MR) and three groups fed natural milk from dams reared with different management systems (mountain grazing (MG), cultivated meadow (CM) and total mixed ration (TMR)). Kids were slaughtered around one month of age and 8 kg of live weight. Kids from the MG and CM groups presented lower retinol (5.56 and 3.72 µg/mL) and higher α-tocopherol plasma (11.43 and 8.85 µg/mL) concentrations than those from the TMR and MR groups (14.98 and 22.47 µg/mL of retinol; 2.49 and 0.52 µg/mL of α-tocopherol, respectively) (p < 0.001). With respect to fat, kids with a higher intramuscular fat percentage (CM and TMR groups) had lower retinol contents (16.52 and 15.99 µg/mL, respectively) than kids from the MG and MR groups (26.81 and 22.63 µg/mL, respectively) (p < 0.001). A dilution effect of vitamins on fat was shown: the higher the amount of fat, the lower the vitamin concentrations, the higher the lipid oxidation index (MDA), and the lower the SUM (absolute value of the integral of the translated spectra between 450 and 510 nm). A discriminant analysis that included all studied variables showed that 94.4% of the kids were classified correctly according to their feeding system and could allow traceability to the consumer.

Keywords: color; fat-soluble vitamins; feeding systems; goat kid; lipid oxidation; traceability.