Basal Septal Hypertrophy as the Early Imaging Biomarker for Adaptive Phase of Remodeling Prior to Heart Failure

J Clin Med. 2021 Dec 24;11(1):75. doi: 10.3390/jcm11010075.


Hypertension plays a dominant role in the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure, in addition to being the main risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this review, we focus on the focal geometric and functional tissue aspects of the LV septal base, since basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), as the early imaging biomarker of LV remodeling due to hypertensive heart disease, is detected in cross-sectional clinic studies. In addition, the validation of BSH by animal studies using third generation microimaging and relevant clinical observations are also discussed in the report. Finally, an evaluation of both human and animal quantitative imaging studies and the importance of combined cardiac imaging methods and stress-induction in the separation of adaptive and maladaptive phases of the LV remodeling are pointed out. As a result, BSH, as the early imaging biomarker and quantitative follow-up of functional analysis in hypertension, could possibly contribute to early treatment in a timely fashion in the prevention of hypertensive disease progression to heart failure. A variety of stress stimuli in etiopathogenesis and the difficulty of diagnosing pure hemodynamic overload mediated BSH lead to an absence of the certain prevalence of this particular finding in the population.

Keywords: basal septal hypertrophy; early imaging biomarker; heart failure; hypertension and stressed heart morphology.

Publication types

  • Review