Polygenic risk prediction based on singular value decomposition with applications to alcohol use disorder

BMC Bioinformatics. 2022 Jan 10;23(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s12859-022-04566-5.


Background/aim: The polygenic risk score (PRS) shows promise as a potentially effective approach to summarize genetic risk for complex diseases such as alcohol use disorder that is influenced by a combination of multiple variants, each of which has a very small effect. Yet, conventional PRS methods tend to over-adjust confounding factors in the discovery sample and thus have low power to predict the phenotype in the target sample. This study aims to address this important methodological issue.

Methods: This study proposed a new method to construct PRS by (1) approximating the polygenic model using a few principal components selected based on eigen-correlation in the discovery data; and (2) conducting principal component projection on the target data. Secondary data analysis was conducted on two large scale databases: the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE; discovery data) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; target data) to compare performance of the conventional and proposed methods.

Result and conclusion: The results show that the proposed method has higher prediction power and can handle participants from different ancestry backgrounds. We also provide practical recommendations for setting the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and p value thresholds.

Keywords: Alcohol use disorder; Complex disease; Polygenic risk score; Singular value decomposition.

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism* / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Multifactorial Inheritance
  • Risk Factors