Directed evolution of the rRNA methylating enzyme Cfr reveals molecular basis of antibiotic resistance

Elife. 2022 Jan 11:11:e70017. doi: 10.7554/eLife.70017.


Alteration of antibiotic binding sites through modification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a common form of resistance to ribosome-targeting antibiotics. The rRNA-modifying enzyme Cfr methylates an adenosine nucleotide within the peptidyl transferase center, resulting in the C-8 methylation of A2503 (m8A2503). Acquisition of cfr results in resistance to eight classes of ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Despite the prevalence of this resistance mechanism, it is poorly understood whether and how bacteria modulate Cfr methylation to adapt to antibiotic pressure. Moreover, direct evidence for how m8A2503 alters antibiotic binding sites within the ribosome is lacking. In this study, we performed directed evolution of Cfr under antibiotic selection to generate Cfr variants that confer increased resistance by enhancing methylation of A2503 in cells. Increased rRNA methylation is achieved by improved expression and stability of Cfr through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, which may be exploited by pathogens under antibiotic stress as suggested by natural isolates. Using a variant that achieves near-stoichiometric methylation of rRNA, we determined a 2.2 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Cfr-modified ribosome. Our structure reveals the molecular basis for broad resistance to antibiotics and will inform the design of new antibiotics that overcome resistance mediated by Cfr.

Keywords: Cfr; E. coli; RNA modifications; antibiotic resistance; biochemistry; chemical biology; cryoEM; directed evolution; molecular biophysics; peptidyl transferase center; structural biology.

Plain language summary

Antibiotics treat or prevent infections by killing bacteria or slowing down their growth. A large proportion of these drugs do this by disrupting an essential piece of cellular machinery called the ribosome which the bacteria need to make proteins. However, over the course of the treatment, some bacteria may gain genetic alterations that allow them to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to global health, and understanding how it emerges and spreads is an important area of research. Recent studies have discovered populations of resistant bacteria carrying a gene for a protein named chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance, or Cfr for short. Cfr inserts a small modification in to the ribosome that prevents antibiotics from inhibiting the production of proteins, making them ineffective against the infection. To date, Cfr has been found to cause resistance to eight different classes of antibiotics. Identifying which mutations enhance its activity and protect bacteria is vital for designing strategies that fight antibiotic resistance. To investigate how the gene for Cfr could mutate and make bacteria more resistant, Tsai et al. performed a laboratory technique called directed evolution, a cyclic process which mimics natural selection. Genetic changes were randomly introduced in the gene for the Cfr protein and bacteria carrying these mutations were treated with tiamulin, an antibiotic rendered ineffective by the modification Cfr introduces into the ribosome. Bacteria that survived were then selected and had more mutations inserted. By repeating this process several times, Tsai et al. identified ‘super’ variants of the Cfr protein that lead to greater resistance. The experiments showed that these variants boosted resistance by increasing the proportion of ribosomes that contained the protective modification. This process was facilitated by mutations that enabled higher levels of Cfr protein to accumulate in the cell. In addition, the current study allowed, for the first time, direct visualization of how the Cfr modification disrupts the effect antibiotics have on the ribosome. These findings will make it easier for clinics to look out for bacteria that carry these ‘super’ resistant mutations. They could also help researchers design a new generation of antibiotics that can overcome resistance caused by the Cfr protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine / metabolism
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Binding Sites
  • Directed Molecular Evolution / methods*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli / drug effects
  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics*
  • Methylation
  • Methyltransferases / genetics*
  • RNA, Ribosomal / genetics*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • RNA, Ribosomal
  • Cfr protein, E coli
  • Methyltransferases
  • Adenosine