Knowledge, attitudes, and practices: a quantitative assessment of hospital physicians and medical interns treating snakebite envenomation in Rwanda

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Jan 7;trab187. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trab187. Online ahead of print.


Background: Snakebite envenomation (SBE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that most often targets rural, subsistence-based farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Rwanda is home to 13 venomous and medically important snake species. Those bitten are known to seek care from traditional healers and/or formal health facilities. No information is available on patient management at government health facilities.

Methods: This quantitative evaluation aimed to characterize knowledge, attitudes and practices related to snakebite management in Rwanda. Target respondents included physicians working at hospitals with the highest SBE caseload and medical interns. Respondents were asked to complete questionnaires on paper or online through Qualtrics.

Results: Overall, 105 physicians and 171 interns agreed to participate. Our findings suggest that overall knowledge scores were low for both groups (mean 49.4%, minimum-maximum 31.3-70.8%). Respondents were keen to receive SBE training but often lacked essential supplies needed to adhere to recommended guidelines for SBE management. One-third of respondents (34.8%) believed that traditional healers could manage SBE successfully and two-thirds (66.3%) felt that black stone therapy was an appropriate first aid practice.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a clear need for improved curricula related to SBE, enhanced supply chain management and practical mechanisms for supporting clinicians.

Keywords: anti-venom; medical education; snakebite envenomation; sub-Saharan Africa.