The impact of the lung environment on macrophage development, activation and function: diversity in the face of adversity

Mucosal Immunol. 2022 Feb;15(2):223-234. doi: 10.1038/s41385-021-00480-w. Epub 2022 Jan 11.


The last decade has been somewhat of a renaissance period for the field of macrophage biology. This renewed interest, combined with the advent of new technologies and development of novel model systems to assess different facets of macrophage biology, has led to major advances in our understanding of the diverse roles macrophages play in health, inflammation, infection and repair, and the dominance of tissue environments in influencing all of these areas. Here, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of lung macrophage heterogeneity, ontogeny, metabolism and function in the context of health and disease, and highlight core conceptual advances and key unanswered questions that we believe should be focus of work in the coming years.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Lung
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages* / metabolism
  • Macrophages, Alveolar*