Hyperphosphorylation of HDAC2 promotes drug resistance in a novel dual drug resistant mouse melanoma cell line model: an in vitro study

Am J Cancer Res. 2021 Dec 15;11(12):5881-5901. eCollection 2021.


Drug-resistant melanoma is very difficult to treat, and a novel approach is needed to overcome resistance. The present study aims at identifying the alternate pathways utilized in the dual drug-resistant mouse melanoma cells (B16F10R) for their survival and proliferation. The dual drug-resistant mouse melanoma, B16F10R, was established by treating the cells with a combination of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI3K-AKT kinase inhibitor) in a dose-escalating manner till they attained a resistance fold factor of ≥2. The altered phosphoproteome in the B16F10R, as compared to the parental B16F10C, was analyzed using a high-resolution Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer. Histone deacetylases 2 (HDAC2) was validated for its role in drug resistance by using its inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA). In the B16F10R cells, 363 altered phosphoproteins were identified, among which 126 were hyperphosphorylated, and 137 were hypophosphorylated (1.5-fold change). Pathway analysis shows the altered phosphoproteins are from RNA metabolism and cell cycle proteins. Inhibition of HDAC2 by VPA induces apoptosis in B16F10C and B16F10R. The present study highlights the role of HDAC2, a cell cycle regulator, in the development of resistance to dual drugs in murine melanoma. Therefore, designing leads for targeting HDAC2 along with key signaling pathways may be explored in treatment strategies.

Keywords: B16F10; Ras pathway; cancer; cell lines; chemotherapy; drug resistance; histone deacetylase 2; melanoma; model; phosphoproteomics.